Researchers from LSU Health New Orleans in the USA and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden found that intranasal administration of specialized pro-resolution lipid mediators prevented memory loss and brain damage (AD) in an experimental model of Alzheimer.
Alzheimer's and memory loss
Very quickly and brutally: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by neuroinflammation. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are bioactive compounds formed from fatty acids (such as omega-3s or their derivatives) that reduce inflammation. There neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), discovered by Nicolas Bazan, MD, PhD, director of New Orleans Neuroscience, is one such broker.
NPD1 has been found beneficial in stroke and retinal damage in previous studies from Bazan's lab, and is in short supply in the brains of Alzheimer's patients, always prone to memory loss.
Inflammation is a complicated process involving mediators, cell subtypes and pathways of communication. Cellular communications that direct the activation of protective and pro-survival mechanisms, as well as the attenuation of inflammatory signaling pathways, are part of the response. Key signaling molecules in the mechanism include specialized pro-resolving lipid messengers such as NPD1.
In the published study, which used a mouse model, the authors conclude that noninvasive (intranasal) administration of biologically active messenger lipids offers opportunities for therapeutic research in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases that involve memory loss.
Alzheimer's currently has no prevention or cure. It is devastating to patients and their families due to its rapid progress and catastrophic adverse events. It is the most common cause of dementia among older people: millions of people suffer from it around the world, and the numbers are unfortunately set to rise.
The treatment stopped memory loss in the mice, and beyond. It also led to a restoration of gamma oscillation deficits, along with a dramatic decrease in microglial activation.
The findings, which open potential avenues for the therapeutic and non-invasive exploration of Alzheimer's, are just been published in the journal Nature, Biology Communications.