For the professor emeritus of Ohio University, the analysis of images from the rovers on Mars shows sufficient evidence, which justifies investigations.
As scientists rush to determine if there is life on Mars, the research of the professor emeritus William Romoser University of Ohio already shows evidence. According to his study, they are clearly visible in the photographs of the rovers present on the red planet.
Dr. Romoser, specializing in arbovirology and medical / general entomology, has been studying photos from the red planet available on the Internet for years. He found numerous examples of insect-like forms, structured similarly to bees, as well as reptile-like forms, both fossil and living. For those who want, several photos are here, accompanied by a summary pdf.
Today he presented his findings at the national meeting of the Entomological Society of America in Saint Louis, Missouri.
"There has been and still is life on Mars", Romoser says bluntly, noting that the images seem to show fossil and living creatures. "There is an apparent diversity among the insect-like Martian fauna that exhibits many characteristics similar to the terrestrial insects which I interpret as advanced groups (the presence of wings, their flexion, agile flight and other elements of the legs)."
A systematic review
Romoser said that while Martian rovers, particularly Curiosity, are looking for indicators of organic activity, there are a number of photos that already offer evidence of life on Mars, as they clearly depict insect and reptile-like shapes. Numerous photos show images in which arthropod body segments, along with legs, antennae and wings, can be spotted from the surrounding area, and one even appears to show one of the insects in a steep swoop and then ascend before hitting the ground.
The individual images were carefully studied by varying the photographic parameters such as brightness, contrast, saturation, inversion and so on. No content has been added or removed.
"Once a clear image of a certain shape was identified and described, it was useful to facilitate the recognition of other less clear but still valid images of the same basic shape"he said Romoser. “An exoskeleton and articulated appendages are sufficient elements to establish identification as arthropods. Three body regions, a single pair of antennae and six legs are traditionally sufficient to establish identification as an insect on Earth.
These characteristics should also apply to identifying an organism on Mars as an insect. On these bases, in the photos of the rover on Mars you can see arthropod shapes and similar to terrestrial insects, evident evidence of life on Mars.
Insects on Mars
The flight behavior of "Martian insects" is evident in many images, says Romoser. These creatures vaguely resemble bumblebees or land bees.
Other images show these "bees" that seem to take refuge or nest in caves. Still others show a fossilized creature resembling a snake.
Romoser, a professor of entomology at the University of Ohio for 45 years and co-founder of the Tropical Disease Institute, also spent nearly 20 years as a vector-borne disease researcher at the U.S. Army's Infectious Disease Medical Research Institute. .
Between 1973 and 1998, Romoser authored and co-authored four editions of the textbook widely used in many institutions, “The Science of Entomology”.
Romoser noted that interpretations of insect and reptile-like creatures could change in the future as knowledge of life on Mars evolves, but that the sheer volume of evidence is compelling.
The conclusions of the study
"The presence of higher metazoan organisms on Mars implies the presence of nutrient / energy sources and processes, food chains and webs and water as elements that function in an ecological environment, albeit extreme, sufficient to sustain life ", said the academician.
“I have observed suggestive cases of standing water or small streams. Noto small submerged rocks, larger rocks, a wet area on the shore and a drier area beyond the wet area. Water on Mars has been reported multiple times, including measurements made by instruments from Viking, Pathfinder, Phoenix and Curiosity. The evidence of life on Mars presented here provides a solid basis for many other important biological as well as social and political issues ".